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By Garcia J.L.L., de Castro M.D.L.

This publication goals to supply scientists with information regarding a chain of concepts that may be used as a way to facilitating the transformation of the pattern to a suitable nation for next detection or quantitation of its parts of curiosity. The thoughts handled diversity from the extremely simple ones (e.g. freeze-drying) to different extra complicated ones (e.g. glow discharge and laser-induced breakdown sampling).

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Thus, elements such as Cr, Zn and Se, which are accumulated by the oyster Carssostrea gigas and determined on account of the high activity of their radioisotopes, exhibit major losses relative to freeze-drying when the samples are oven-dried at 50, 90, 105 or 120~ [28]. In some cases, the magnitude of the losses depends not only on temperature but also on the type of tissue that contains the target analytes. Thus, kidney and fecal samples dried in an oven at 80~ exhibit no significant losses of Cr(lll); such losses start to be appreciable at 105~ and become significant at 120~ On the other hand, Cr(VI) losses are negligible at any of the previous temperatures [29].

An extraction step must be conducted when concentrating plasma compounds containing large amounts of proteins and other electrochemically active materials. One effective method for extracting drugs from urine uses freeze-drying and a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction. Urine samples are supplied with acetic acid and freezedried, the resulting residue being extracted and analysed by thin layer chromatography. This method provides much higher recoveries than standard extraction procedures for all types of compounds [52].

A simultaneous fall in product temperature is indicative of the presence of frozen solvent that should thus be extracted during the sublimation or primary drying step. Detecting any residual solvent in this way avoids the risk of the product melting down. Before the desorption step is started, this pressure control cycle is repeated until no further drop in product temperature is observed. The vacuum pump The vacuum pumps initially used in freeze-dryers were of the belt-drive type and, as such, extremely bulky and noisy by current standards.

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Acceleration And Automation Of Solid Sample Treatment by Garcia J.L.L., de Castro M.D.L.

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