By R. Miller

ISBN-10: 1468411284

ISBN-13: 9781468411287

ISBN-10: 1468411306

ISBN-13: 9781468411300

An extreme charged particle beam should be characterised as an equipped charged particle movement for which the consequences of beam self-fields are of significant significance in describing the evolution of the move. study utilising such beams is now a swiftly growing to be box with vital purposes starting from the advance of excessive energy resources of coherent radiation to inertial confinement fusion. significant courses have now been confirmed at a number of laboratories within the usa and nice Britain, in addition to within the USSR, Japan, and several other japanese and Western ecu international locations. additionally, similar examine actions are being pursued on the graduate point at numerous universities within the US and out of the country. while the writer first entered this box in 1973 there has been no unmarried reference textual content that supplied a huge survey of the real subject matters, but contained adequate element to be of curiosity to the lively researcher. That scenario has continued, and this publication is an try to fill the void. As such, the textual content is aimed toward the graduate pupil, or starting researcher; besides the fact that, it comprises considerable info to be a handy reference resource for the complex worker.

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9) where k2= 2(1- 2)1/2 y 1+(1- y2)1/2' and K and E are the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. 37 Sec. 1 • FJectron Emission Processes Substitution of Eqs. 8) into Eq. 12) The functions v and t are tabulated in Ref. 3. For low temperatures, the emission differs only slightly from the case of emission at zero temperature, but for higher temperatures the main contribution to the current comes from electrons above the Fermi level and the character of the emission changes. 3.

6 Torr); (V= 2 MY, 1= 20 kA). Chap. 1 • Introduction 26 perpendicular temperature. Finally, at still higher pressures, the frequency of collisions between plasma electrons and neutrals increases, and the conductivity decreases (1m < I). Since the beam space charge is still neutralized (Ie = I) pinched beam propagation is again possible. 4. The Macroscopic Fluid Description While the envelope equation developed in the preceding section provides a useful qualitative guide to the general behavior of a charged particle beam, a more detailed understanding of intense beam physics requires a more sophisticated theoretical treatment.

3. Effective potential energy V( z) of an electron near a metallic surface, as given by Eq. 5), assuming an electric field strength of E = 10 8 V/cm. 3) where e is the electron energy, EF is the energy of the Fermi level, k is the Boltzmann constant, Ii = h j2'fT where h is Planck's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. 4) An approximate form for the effective one-dimensional potential is (see Fig. 5) 36 Chap. 85XlO- 12 flm is the permittivity of free space (MKS units). The three contributions to the effective potential are (i) some constant value (- Wo) within the metal which is lower than the Fermi level, (ii) a contribution (- eEz) arising from an applied electric field, and (iii) a contribution - e 2/4u p 7T due to the image charge induced on the surface of the metal by an electron outside the metal.

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