By Cadman Atta Mills
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Extra resources for Analytical approaches to stabilization and adjustment programs
Page 13 Because, ultimately, we are only interested in the role of the monetary system as an intermediary for channeling savings from one group of transactors to another, for example, from the private sector to the government, such an aggregation makes sense. However, a study that, among other things, is concerned with how the activities of central banks affect the money supply through commercial bank regulations, such as reserve requirements, discount rate, open-market operations, and so on, would require further disaggregation.
Environmental Accounting and National Accounts Studies on environmental accounting invariably resort to the tools of microeconomic analysis. These studies attempt to estimate the cost (benefit) of external diseconomies (economies) to society and to adjust estimates of GNP accordingly. Nordhaus and Tobin (1972) were the first to estimate a modified GNP. They estimated a measure called net economic welfare (NEW) for the United States using the following definition: NEW º GNP - Value of external diseconomies + Value of external economies + Value of nonmarket activities + Value of leisure.
Column 2 details current government expenditures (CEXPg); government consumption of currently produced goods and services (Cg) (that is, the cost of providing government services), net transfers to domestic households (NTRgp), interest paid to households on the domestic debt (INTgp), and the interest that the government pays on its external debt (INTge). Government savings (Sg at the intersection of row 6 and column 2) is the difference between government revenue and expenditure. The monetary system identified in the consistency matrix includes central or reserve banks and all commercial banks, as well as credit unions, private savings banks, and other public savings institutions.
Analytical approaches to stabilization and adjustment programs by Cadman Atta Mills