By Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)
More than ten million `poison fuel' shells, mortar bombs, etc., lie hidden in Europe, a lot of them relics from international battle I. a few have been fired and didn't detonate, others have been deserted in previous ammunition dumps. such a lot continue their load of chemical war (CW) brokers. they're became up day-by-day during farming and building. Many ecu countries have everlasting departments keen on their assortment and destruction.
previous munitions, while found, tend to be seriously corroded and hard to spot. Is it a CW munition? Or an explosive? If CW, what agent does it include? as soon as pointed out, one has to pick a destruction strategy. a few of the equipment which have been proposed are below excellent, and are usually complex through the presence of extraneous chemical substances, both combined with the CW brokers in the course of manufacture or shaped over a long time within the flooring.
Of specific curiosity are the insiders' reviews at the German CW programmes of either global Wars, and the present prestige of Russian chemical armaments.
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Additional info for Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions
CHEMICAL DESTRUCTION Chemical destruction is usually achieved using hydrolysis or oxidation. It is the first process to have been used. This technique has the disadvantage of not being very effective on a large scale as the reaction time may be fairly long if an acceptable extent of conversion is to be achieved (> 99%). The volume of waste generated is significant (a ratio of I to 6), waste that then has to be concentrated or incinerated in a dedicated plant. Finally, decontamination of the containers (which is a rapid operation using incineration) is very labour intensive, and may even be impossible.
A company has developed an elegant process for the processing of liquid residue from household waste. The sludge is injected into a 2000 m deep well. The temperature reached (180 to 200°C) and the pressure (200 bars) are sufficient to destroy all organic compounds. This process has aroused much interest and has led CIBA-GEIGY to build two plants operating on the wet cycle oxidation principle (300°C, 200 bars). Unfortunately the operating conditions are such that only compounds containing C, H, 0 and a little chlorine can be processed without causing rapid corrosion of the equipment.
It is essential that the elimination of these weapons be carried out in an irreproachable fashion to ensure that the organisations responsible for this task cannot be accused of contaminating the population or the environment. It is for this reason that institutions responsible for the destruction and for its monitoring must apply objective criteria to enable a quantitative assessment of the impact on the outside world of the processes employed. ) Such discussions are complicated by the sometimes unavoidable confidentiality associated with agent destruction.
Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions by Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)